ASA-2007-018: Resource exhaustion vulnerability in IAX2 channel driver Jul 29 2007 11:38PM
Security Response Team (security asterisk org)
Asterisk Project Security Advisory - ASA-2007-018

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| Product | Asterisk |
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| Summary | Resource Exhaustion vulnerability in IAX2 channel |
| | driver |
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| Nature of Advisory | Denial of Service |
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| Susceptibility | Remote Unauthenticated Sessions |
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| Severity | Moderate |
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| Exploits Known | No |
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| Reported On | July 19, 2007 |
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| Reported By | Russell Bryant, Digium, Inc. <russell (at) digium (dot) com [email concealed]> |
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| Posted On | July 23, 2007 |
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| Last Updated On | July 25, 2007 |
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| Advisory Contact | Russell Bryant <russell (at) digium (dot) com [email concealed]> |
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| CVE Name | |
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| Description | The IAX2 channel driver in Asterisk is vulnerable to a |
| | Denial of Service attack when configured to allow |
| | unauthenticated calls. An attacker can send a flood of |
| | NEW packets for valid extensions to the server to |
| | initiate calls as the unauthenticated user. This will |
| | cause resources on the Asterisk system to get allocated |
| | that will never go away. Furthermore, the IAX2 channel |
| | driver will be stuck trying to reschedule |
| | retransmissions for each of these fake calls forever. |
| | This can very quickly bring down a system and the only |
| | way to recover is to restart Asterisk. |
| | |
| | Detailed Explanation: |
| | |
| | Within the last few months, we made some changes to |
| | chan_iax2 to combat the abuse of this module for traffic |
| | amplification attacks. Unfortunately, this has caused an |
| | unintended side effect. |
| | |
| | The summary of the change to combat traffic |
| | amplification is this. Once you start the PBX on the |
| | Asterisk channel, it will begin receiving frames to be |
| | sent back out to the network. We delayed this from |
| | happening until a 3-way handshake has occurred to help |
| | ensure that we are talking to the IP address the |
| | messages appear to be coming from. |
| | |
| | When chan_iax2 accepts an unauthenticated call, it |
| | immediately creates the ast_channel for the call. |
| | However, since the 3-way handshake has not been |
| | completed, the PBX is not started on this channel. |
| | |
| | Later, when the maximum number of retries have been |
| | exceeded on responses to this NEW, the code tries to |
| | hang up the call. Now, it has 2 ways to do this, |
| | depending on if there is an ast_channel related to this |
| | IAX2 session or not. If there is no channel, then it can |
| | just destroy the iax2 private structure and move on. If |
| | there is a channel, it queues a HANGUP frame, and |
| | expects that to make the ast_channel get torn down, |
| | which would then cause the pvt struct to get destroyed |
| | afterwords. |
| | |
| | However, since there was no PBX started on this channel, |
| | there is nothing servicing the channel to receive the |
| | HANGUP frame. Therefore, the call never gets destroyed. |
| | To make things worse, there is some code continuously |
| | rescheduling PINGs and LAGRQs to be sent for the active |
| | IAX2 call, which will always fail. |
| | |
| | In summary, sending a bunch of NEW frames to request |
| | unauthenticated calls can make a server unusable within |
| | a matter of seconds. |
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| Resolution | The default configuration that is distributed with |
| | Asterisk includes a guest account that allows |
| | unauthenticated calls. If this account and any other |
| | account without a password is disabled for IAX2, then the |
| | system is not vulnerable to this problem. |
| | |
| | For systems that continue to allow unauthenticated IAX2 |
| | calls, they must be updated to one of the versions listed |
| | as including the fix below. |
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| Affected Versions |
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| Product | Release | |
| | Series | |
|----------------------------+-------------+----------------------------
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| Asterisk Open Source | 1.0.x | Not affected |
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| Asterisk Open Source | 1.2.x | 1.2.20, 1.2.21, 1.2.21.1, |
| | | 1.2.22 |
|----------------------------+-------------+----------------------------
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| Asterisk Open Source | 1.4.x | 1.4.5, 1.4.6, 1.4.7, |
| | | 1.4.7.1, 1.4.8 |
|----------------------------+-------------+----------------------------
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| Asterisk Business Edition | A.x.x | Not affected |
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| Asterisk Business Edition | B.x.x | Not affected |
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| AsteriskNOW | pre-release | beta6 |
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| Asterisk Appliance | 0.x.x | 0.5.0 |
| Developer Kit | | |
|----------------------------+-------------+----------------------------
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| s800i (Asterisk Appliance) | 1.0.x | 1.0.0-beta5 up to and |
| | | including 1.0.2 |
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| Corrected In |
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| Product | Release |
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| Asterisk Open | 1.2.23 and 1.4.9, available for download from |
| Source | http://ftp.digium.com/pub/asterisk |
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| AsteriskNOW | Beta6, available from |
| | [LINK][LINK]http://www.asterisknow.org/[LINK][LINK]. |
| | Users can update using the system update feature in |
| | the appliance control panel. |
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| Asterisk | 0.6.0, available for download from |
| Appliance | http://ftp.digium.com/pub/aadk |
| Developer Kit | |
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| s800i | 1.0.3 |
| (Asterisk | |
| Appliance) | |
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| Links | |
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| Asterisk Project Security Advisories are posted at |
| [LINK][LINK]http://www.asterisk.org/security[LINK][LINK]. |
| |
| This document may be superseded by later versions; if so, the latest |
| version will be posted at |
| http://ftp.digium.com/pub/asa/ASA-2007-018.pdf. |
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| Revision History |
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| Date | Editor | Revisions Made |
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| July 23, 2007 | russell (at) digium (dot) com [email concealed] | Initial Release |
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Asterisk Project Security Advisory - ASA-2007-018
Copyright (c) 2007 Digium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Permission is hereby granted to distribute and publish this advisory in its
original, unaltered form.

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