Glossary
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Cache
The cache feature allows your browser to store a record of web pages that a user has visited recently. This allows the browser to call up the web page from local memory when the user wants to return to it, so that the web page is quickly recalled.

Checksum
A small, numerical quantity that is used to determine the validity of accompanying data. In TCP/IP, a checksum is carried in the header of a packet and allows TCP to ensure that the integrity of a message has been maintained throughout delivery. The checksum is a calculation of the amount and numerical value of data held in a message and is computed by the sender of a message and recomputed and checked by the recipient of a message to detect data corruption.

Client
A client is a computer or device that requests and receives services from another computer known as a server. A common example of client-server computer system is a when a home computer (the client) requests and receives web pages from a web server (the server).

Closed Source Code
Programming code that is not open to public inspection (as opposed to open source code.) Closed source code is often the target of hackers who are interested in understanding how the software works and can only find out by inspecting the code surreptitiously.

Computer Security
Refers to the policies, practices and procedures that are applied to information systems to ensure that the data and information that is held within or communicated along those systems is not vulnerable to inappropriate or unauthorized use, access or modification and that the networks that are used to store, process or transmit information are kept operational and secure against unauthorized access. As the Internet becomes a more fundamental part of doing business, computer and information security are assuming more importance in corporate planning and policy.

Computer Virus
A computer virus is malicious code that self-replicates once it is inside a victim computer to invade computers and networks and wreak havoc on them. The mischief caused can be very minor, such as causing a funny image or cryptic message to be displayed on your screen, or it can do more serious damage by altering or even destroying files.

Confidentiality
The principle that restricts the dissemination of information collected for approved and specific purposes to parties who are not authorized to view that information shall not take place without the knowledge and consent of the person, group or organization that provided the information.

Cookies
Files containing information created by Web sites that are stored on the user's hard disk. Browsers pick up cookies at some Web sites and store them on disk. Files stored on your hard drive by your Web browser may hold information about your browsing habits, like what sites you have visited, which newsgroups you have read, etc, or may contain session identifiers or authentication information. Many view 'cookies' as an invasion of privacy. Because many people do not trust cookies, browsers give users the option of disabling them.

Cracker
A person who uses other people's computers for criminal purposes.



 

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