Glossary
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Script Kiddies
Unskilled crackers who use code and software - or scripts - that they download from the Internet to inflict damage upon targeted sites. Often their destructive activities are carried out for no other purpose than to prove their hacking prowess.

Secure browser
A Web browser that can use a secure protocol, like SSL, to establish a secure connection to a Web server. Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer both offer this feature.

Security
Refers to the policies, practices and procedures that are applied to information systems to ensure that the data and information that is held within or communicated along those systems is not vulnerable to inappropriate or unauthorized use, access or modification and that the networks that are used to store, process or transmit information are kept operational and secure against unauthorized access. As the Internet becomes a more fundamental part of doing business, computer and information security are assuming more importance in corporate planning and policy.

Server
A computer or software that provides services to other computers known as clients that request specific services. Common examples are web servers and mail servers.

SMTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
The protocol that allows e-mail messages to be exchanged between mail servers. Clients will then retrieve email, typically via the POP or IMAP protocols.

Software
Also known as program, software serves as instructions for the computer to perform a particular task. A series of instructions that performs a particular task is called a program. Software instructs the hardware of the computer how to handle data in order to perform a specific task.

Source code
The original code used to write computer programs. Hackers often learn about programs and operating systems by viewing the source code, thereby identifying potential weaknesses in the final product that could be used to attack a computer or network that is running the program or operating system.

Spam
Unsolicited e-mail, mailing list or newsgroup postings, often for the sake of advertising. Spamming, the act of disseminating spam, is considered to be bad 'netiquette' as it can tie up mail servers and networks, clog up recipients' mailboxes and is generally considered to be an abuse of the underlying ethos of the Internet.

SSH or Secure Shell
A program that allows a user to log securely into another computer over a network by using encryption. SSH prevents third parties from intercepting or otherwise gaining access to information sent over the network.

SSL or Secure Sockets Layer
A protocol that allows the secure, encrypted transmission of information over the Internet. SSL is the industry standard for e-commerce businesses to ensure the safe transmission of customers' vital information such as credit card numbers. SSL is the leading security protocol on the world wide web. The online merchant sends its public key to the shopper's browser, which the browser uses to send a randomly-generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key exchange for that session.

Stateful Packet Inspection
An effective firewall technique based upon the principles of packet inspection; however, whereas packet filtering examines a single packet header, stateful packet inspection inspects a series of packets to establish that a previous connection with the external computer has been made. If so, it will allow the packet entry. If not, the firewall will deny access to the packet.

Symmetric encryption
An encryption method involving a single secret key for both encryption and decryption. The sender of the message encrypting the message must give that key to the recipient before they can decrypt it. Although this method of encryption is efficient, there is a danger that if the secret key is intercepted the message can be read by an unintended audience.



 

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